Sosis, R., & Bressler, E. R. (2003). Religious cognition and behaviour in autism: The role of mentalizing. A well-disposed social anthropologist’s problems with the ‘cognitive science of religion’ Controversies in the evolutionary social sciences: A guide for the perplexed. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.07.003, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64428-8_2. In a discussion with Purzycki, he suggested the path forward for the study of religion by evolutionary anthropologists can serve two critical purposes. Wlodarski, R., & Pearce, E. (2016). Applying evolutionary theory to human behaviour: Past differences and current debates. White, C., Baimel, A., & Norenzayan, A. Evolutionary explanations in the social and behavioural sciences. Whitehouse, H., & Lanman, J. Religion is the result of an evolutionary process in human culture. Is religion an evolutionarily evoked disease-avoidance strategy? The evolutionary origin of religions and religious behavior is a field of study related to evolutionary psychology, the origin of language and mythology, and cross-cultural comparison of the anthropology of religion. Religion poses a problem for evolutionary anthropologists. They suggest that this association may be partially responsible for the evolution of social complexity in that religion served as a mechanism through which people were motivated to act in a prosocial way towards Religion as an evolutionary byproduct: A critique of the standard model. Second, they can engage in behaviors that are more subtle but also are costly over a longer period of time, such as worshiping at a church or temple each week. Xygalatas, D., Mitkidis, P., Fischer, R., Reddish, P., Skewes, J., Feertz, A. W., & Bulbulia, J. In this chapter we critically review evolutionary approaches to understanding religion by looking, in turn, at three main perspectives: religion as a by-product, religion as an adaptation, and religion as the product of cultural evolutionary processes. It is argued that each of these approaches can potentially account for important aspects of religion and that frameworks which integrate by-product and adaptationist accounts and draw on the idea of cultural evolution are particularly promising. Therefore, an individual’s costly contribution to the group cooperative effort may be seen as beneficial to all and people with such a reputation may gain individual benefits. Reddish, P., Tok, P., & Kundt, R. (2016). God’s punishment and public goods. (2011). Attribution of mental states to animated shapes in normal and abnormal development. Hafer, C. L., & Sutton, R. (2016). Scholars employing an evolutionary approach to the study of religion and religious beliefs search for ultimate explanations of the origin, propagation, and persistence of religious beliefs. (2013). (2016). Norenzayan, A., Gervais, W. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2012). The behavioural ecology of religion: The benefits and costs of one evolutionary approach. Most notably, the evolutionary sciences do not offer one clear procedure to study religion or any human activity. Cultural influences on the teleological stance: Evidence from China. How do rituals affect cooperation? A., Hennes, E. P., Stern, C., Gosling, S. D., & Graham, J. Sosis, R., & Alcorta, C. (2003). Weeden, J., & Kurzban, R. (2013). A multidimensional analysis of reproductive and cooperative morals. This paper discusses some questions associated with the evolutionary study of religion. (2013). Here we describe the behavioral ecological approach to religion. 63.249.93.208. Although evolutionists agree about the general theoretical framework, they have disagreed about which hypotheses best describe the nature of religion. Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. Atkinson, Q. D., & Bourrat, P. (2011). (2015). B. Fischer, R., Callander, R., Reddish, P., & Bulbulia, J. However, this assumes that the evolutionary approach is our only option. (2017). Human behavioral ecology: Current research and future prospects. It is one approach to the psychology of religion.As with all other organs and organ functions, the brain's functional structure is argued to have a genetic basis, and is therefore subject to the effects of natural selection and evolution. Religion is not an adaptation. In this article, we introduce the general rationale behind the evolutionary cognitive science of religion, answer some sensible humanistic objections to it and defend the promise of a ‘consilient’ approach to advance the academic study of religion. Contemporary Evolutionary Theories of Culture and the Study of Religion surveys the historical background of cultural evolution as used in the study of religion, pinpointing major objections to classical nineteenth-century theories. It is call… Evolutionary Communication presents the first comprehensive evolutionary approach to the study of human communication. Yes, No, Neutral, but mostly, we don’t know. Proponents of this theory believe, as in the subjective theory, that religion originates with man. Here we describe the behavioral ecological approach to religion. Terrizzi, J. Origins and evolution of religion from a Darwinian point of view: Synthesis of different theories. the honest signal must be received by community members. Another abiding theme in Evolution, Religion, & Cognitive Science is that of the compatibility of ECSR, either with religious faith and practice or with other scholarly approaches to the study of religion. This is a preview of subscription content. Smith, Z., & Arrow, H. (2010). Signalling theory and the evolution of religious cooperation. Researchers focused on a group­level explanation of the role of religion in the evolution of human behavior suggest that an individual might participate in costly behavior because he or she benefits through benefiting the group at large. However, in order to complete the circle and apply the reputational benefits to the appropriate actor, Strassman, B. I., Kurapati, N. T., Hug, E. E., Gillespie, B. W., Karafet, T. M., & Hammer, M. F. (2012). Reasoning about purpose and design in nature. Kathrine Starkweather is a postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and co­editor of EAS News. Buss, D. M., Haselton, M. G., Shackelford, T. K., Bleske, A. L., & Wakefield, J. C. (1998). Most notably, the evolutionary sciences do not offer one clear procedure to study religion or any human activity. They are: commitment theory, which postulates that religion is a system of costly signaling that reduces deception and creates He also introduces an alternative evolutionary approach to the study of culture which does not claim that the principles of neo-Darwinian evolution should be applicable outside the biological domain and shows that this alternative evolutionary approach provides a deeply enriching line of enquiry. Signaling, solidarity, and the sacred: The evolution of religious behaviour. What are the causes and consequences of belief in Karma. Contemporary Evolutionary Theories of Culture and the Study of Religion surveys the historical background of cultural evolution as used in the study of religion, pinpointing major objections to … Richerson, P., Baldini, R., Bell, A. V., Demps, K., Frost, K., Hillis, V., … Ross, C. (2016). In W. G. Oxtoby, R. C. Amore, & A. Hussain (Eds.). Bering, J., & Bjorklund, D. F. (2004). Schmitt, D. P., & Fuller, R. C. (2015). In conversation with Christopher Cotter, Brown outlines rival traditions within the history of religion and demonstrates what each has contributed to our understanding of secularisation. Hall, D. L., Cohen, A. Dunbar, R. I. M. (2013). Wood, B., & Baker, J. Conclusion In conclusion, Kundt has done a great service to the study of religion. Tinbergen, N. (1963). Evolutionary, Cognitive, and Contextual Approaches to the Study of Religious Systems: A Proposition of Synthesis August 2019 Method & Theory in the Study of Religion On the varieties of sexual experience. Christianity, Islam) are spread so far and wide around the world and why large­scale societies and prosociality are as well. Roes, F. L., & Raymond, M. (2003). The evolutionary psychology of religion is the study of religious belief using evolutionary psychology principles. 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